A Review of the Field from 1973 - 2001
Richard Alan Miller, Iona Miller, and
Burt Webb, © 2001
Organization for the Advancement of Knowledge, Grants Pass
A model of the mind-brain relationship is developed in which novel biophysical principles in brain function generate a dynamic possessing attributes consistent with consciousness and free-will. The model invokes a fractal link between neurodynamical chaos and quantum uncertainty. Transactional wave collapse allows this link to be utilized predictively by the excitable cell, in a way which bypasses and complements formal computation. The formal unpredictability of the model allows mind to interact upon the brain, the predictivity of consciousness in survival strategies being selected as a trait by organismic evolution.
Recent discoveries by Russian scientists Peter Gariaev and Vladimir Poponin shed tremendous light on our proposal that the human being is a transducer of universal energy and consciousness -- essentially a biocomputer. The new feature of this research is the ability to physically demonstrate subtle fields emerging from the quantum foam or vacuum potential. This makes the effect quantifiable and measurable -- objective.
This takes the phenomenon and subjectivity of consciousness out of the realm of quantum metaphysics and plants it firmly under the rubric of hard science. It heralds the unification of quantum mechanical and chaotic dynamics in human consciousness. We can now model the human bio-computer.
Poponin boldly suggests that this deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying subtle energy phenomena include many of the observed alternative healing phenomena and includes a physical theory of consciousness. This hypothesis is based on a precise quantitative background and combines both quantum mechanics and complexity or chaos dynamics in a startling and compelling new way. It posits that some new field structure is being excited from the physical vacuum by an intrinsic ability which emerges through DNA.
His DNA Phantom Effect demonstrates a dynamic new field in the vacuum substructure by bombarding it with coherent laser light and coupling it to conventional electromagnetic fields. The experimental protocols for this proceedure are rigorous, and have been reproduced in Moscow and at Stanford.
R. Miller, I. Miller, and Webb (2001) are now consulting on the project to suggest the next research directions and applications. R. Miller and Webb have a long-standing background in the this field. Long before David Bohm published his Wholeness and the Implicate Order (1980) R. Miller and Webb published "A Holographic Concept of Reality" in Psychoenergetic Systems, ed. Stanley Krippner, Vol. 1, 1975. 55-62. Gordon & Breach Science Publishers Ltd., Great Britain. "Holographic Concept" was later reprinted in the book PSYCHOENERGETIC SYSTEMS, S. Krippner, editor. c1979. 231-237. Gordon & Breach, New York, London, Paris. It was reprinted again in the journal Psychedelic Monographs and Essays, Vol.5, 1992. 93-111. Boynton Beach, FL, Tom Lyttle, Editor. This foundational paper was followed shortly by "Embryonic Holography: An Application of the Holographic Concept of Reality", also in 1973. In 1993, Iona Miller published "The Holographic Paradigm and the Consciousness Restructuring Process," another application to psychotherapeutic mindbody healing. Subsequently she has published extensively on the role of complex dynamics in relationship to consciousness and process-oriented psychotherapy.
The organization of any biological system is established by a complex electrodynamic field which is, in part, determined by its atomic physiochemical components and which, in part, determines the behavior and orientation of these components. The holographic model of reality emerging from this principle provides a scientific explanation of psychoenergetic phenomena, (R. Miller, Webb, Dickson, 1973).
In 1973,R. Miller and Webb suggested bioholograms as the projectors of our material reality:
In the nuclei of each cell in the human body, the DNA (desoxiribonucleic acid) carries the structure of our whole body. Not just our physical form, but also the processes that that form undergoes in terms of survival. If all of these things are in truth locked in the DNA, how does that turn into a functioning being?
The DNA could possibly be the holographic projectors. The DNA could be projecting a field that would be experienced by other DNA in the body. The DNA, in a sense, could be linked together. The DNA are also linked to their own cells that they are controlling via mechanisms of RNA transfer and enzymatic action in the cell. We believe that it is likely that the DNA and the RNA are in communication.
Recent research has shown the possibility that DNA activates the motion of an RNA sphincter or iris mechanism to permit or exclude ion entrance into the cell. If this is, in fact, true and if the DNA controls the action of the RNA that goes to the ribosomes and other sites to create specific enzymes in the cell which causes further reaction, it is possible that the enzymes are under the control of the DNA also.
We believe that the DNA is the projector of the biohologram, both at the cellular level and at the whole-organismic level. This means that the DNA creates a situation of a complex pattern of three-dimensional electromagnetic standing and moving wave fronts in the space that the organism occupies. We believe that these wave fronts interact with, interpenetrate with, and interdetermine the physical substance that makes up the creature.
The biohologram has characteristic properties of affecting the DNA that occupies its specific position within the biohologram. We believe that the nervous system constitutes a coordination mechanism that integrates DNA projections of the rest of the cells in the system. We believe it is first and foremost a coordination mechanism. And it aligns these cellular holograms and the linkage of the whole creature hologram.
The DNA in a particular cell is not totally active. It has been determined that there may be as little as 1% of the DNA present in the nucleus of the cell acting as the determinant for the structure of that cell. The nervous system, interestingly enough, has the highest percentage of operating DNA of any cell system in the body, of up to at least 10% of the DNA in the brain cells. The neuron nuclei are most active.
We suggest that the nervous system projects a biohologram which interacts with the cellular bioholograms. If the membrane structureof the neuron nuclei are examined closely, it will be seen that the different cavity systems that enter the outer membrane and also enter the inner membranes, will be seen to topologically be a single membrane. So the nucleus is lacking a membrane, or the neurons are lacking a membrane in the sense that two of their membranes are topologically one membrane.
We suggest that the neurons are not actually brain cells as such. We believe that the brain is the cell, and the neurons are like a distributed nucleus for that cell. That makes the glial cells oranelles in the giant brain-cell. But they are also cells in their own right, much more so than neurons are. We believe the glials are infinitely involved with the biohologram, in its projections, and its coordination.
To go further, the biohologram, projected by the brain, creates standing and moving electromagnetic wave patterns at different frequencies of the spectrum in order to effect different biochemical transformations. There may be specific electrostatic fields, or there may be electrodynamic fields varying at various frequencies all the way up the spectrum into visible light and beyond, from low radio waves.
Another process of holography is called "acoustical holography". Acoustal holography employs sound waves to create a movement on a surface that is used as the basis for creation of an optical hologram. So we essentially convert between a pattern of sound waves reflected off an object in space into a pattern of light waves that can reconstruct the shape of that object. We have a transformation between two levels of vibration, two media as it were, preserving a pattern in space. (R. Miller and Webb, 1973).
We suggest that this happens to a much greater degree in the DNA control of our bodies. The liver, for example, contains special function cells. The special function of the liver cells is created by the influence of the projection of the liver pattern on the DNA in the cells in the area where the liver is created. We are suggesting an important feedback mechanism between the activation of the DNA in a particular cellular tissue type that causes it to be that tissue type, and the biohologram being projected by the nervous system. This is bioholography.
Returning to the recent Russian discoveries, which seem to confirm R. Miller and Webb:
Both quantitative and qualitative data are crucial for the development of a new unified nonlinear quantum field theory which includes the physical theory of consciousness.
The DNA phantom field effect may be interpreted as a manifestation of a new physical vacuum substructure which has been previously overlooked. It is perhaps a specific example of a more general category of electromagnetic phantom effects.
Results of the experiments described by Poponin showed that when DNA was put in a scattering chamber and bombarded with laser light a phantom was revealed, even when the DNA itself had been removed. Researchers hypothesize that some new field structure is being excited from the physical vacuum. Its origin is related to physical DNA. As yet, they have found no other substance which recreates or emulates the effect of the DNA molecule. They bombard it with weak coherent laser radiation in two frequencies. The intensity of the scattered light is measured, as well as non-linear localized excitations.
This suggests that the electromagnetic phantom effect is a more fundamental phenomenon which can be used to explain other observed phantom effects, though not to be confused with the often misinterpreted secondary emission of electrons seen in Kirlian Photography and dubbed "phantoms." [ref. R. Miller on "The Physical Mechanisms of Kirlian Photography,"] Psychoenergetic Systems, Stanley Krippner, ed., 1974]. Evidence suggests a relationship to the phenomena of [endogynous] bioluminescence, liquid crystals, and superconductivity, which we intend to pursue.
Other research (Childre, 1992; Paddison, 1992) suggests that consciousness is non-localized in the bodymind. Joseph Chilton Peace in his latest, The Biology of Transcendence: A Blueprint of the Human Spirit, points out that we have five neural centers or brains--and establishes that our fourth and most recently developed brain is located in the head while the fifth is located in the heart.
It is the dynamic interaction of this head brain (intellect) and heart brain (intelligence), of biology and spirit, that allows transcendence from one evolutionary place to the next. Pearce declares we are quite literally, made to transcend. He says, "Transcendence is our biological imperative, a state we have been moving toward for millennia."
In less scientific and more mystical terms, we emerge through self-organization from the Void and to the Void we can return for renewal and sustenance. It is, in fact the Heart Sutra that informs us that "Form is not other than Void; Void is not other than Form." Our human form is not other than this void, and biophysics now demonstrates this quantitatively and qualitatively.
We are more fundamentally electromagnetic, rather than chemical beings. The void state,"cosmic zero," is the primal matrix and proportionately our most fundamental reality. In essence, we emerge from pre-geometrically structured nothingness, and DNA is the projector of that field which sets up the stress gradients in the vacuum or quantum foam to initiate that process of embryonic holography, (R. Miller and Webb, 1973).
The quintessence of the four cosmic elements of space, time, energy and matter is Light. In some strange way, light is the link connecting them all. At some level, the entire electromagnetic spectrum can be considered transductions of light at various frequencies. Poetically, we can consider matter as "frozen" light. In much the same metaphorical sense, consciousness and our being may be also. Mystics of all ages consider the fundamental principles of creation to be Light and Sound. Now science may be tangibly valiadating that spiritual intuition.
The Gariaev group has proposed a theory of the DNA-wave Biocomputer. They suggest:
(1) that there are genetic "texts", similar to natural context-dependent texts in human language;
(2) that the chromosome apparatus acts simultaneously both as a source and receiver of these genetic texts, repsectively decoding and encoding them;
(3) the chromosome continuum acts like a dynamical holographic grating, which displays or transduces weak laser light and solitonic electro-acoustic fields.
The distribution of the character frequency in genetic texts is fractal,so the nucleotides of DNA molecules are able to form holographic pre-images of biostructures.
This process of "reading and writing" the very matter of our being manifests from the genome's associative holographic memory in conjunction with its quantum nonlocality. Rapid transmission of genetic information and gene-expression unite the organism as holistic entity embedded in the larger Whole. The system works as a biocomputer -- a wave biocomputer.
The quantum nonlocality of the genetic information is fundamental. Experimental work of the Gariaev group shows how quantum nonlocality is directly related to laser radiation from chromosomes (Light), which jitterbugs its polarization plane to radiate or occlude photons. The same researchers suspect the ability of chromosomes to transform their own genetic-sign laser radiations into broadband genetic-sign radio waves (Sound; Audible Life Stream). The polarizations of chromosome laser photons are connected nonlocally and coherently to polarizations of radio waves. Thus, we have an explicit physical analogue for the mystical apprehension of inner Light and the Audible Life Stream.
The signal can be "read out" without any loss of the essential information in the form of polarized radio waves. The liquid crystal phases of the chromosome apparatus (laser mirror analogues) can be considered a fractal environment which stores the localized photons. This creates a coherent continuum of quantum-nonlocally distributed polarized radio wave genomic information.
The genetic wave information from DNA, recorded within the polarizations of connected photons, being quantum nonlocal, constitutes a broadband radio wave spectrum. This spectrum is correlated by means of polarizations with the photons. This is the main information channel of DNA, the same for both photons and radio waves.
This biocomputer memory and retrieval program features photon-laser-radiowave polarization spectroscopy. Complex dynamics are expressed as fractal patterns at all levels of organization in nature. And this is no exception. The fundamental notion is, that the photon-laser-radiowave features of different objects (the Fourier-spectra of the radiowaves ofcrystals, water, metals, DNA, etc.) are stored for definite but varying times by means of laser mirrors, such that the "mirror spectra" concern chaotic attractors with a complex dynamic fractal dynamics, recurring in time.
This research is the first example of a novel static storage/recording environment (laser mirrors) capable of directly recording the space-time atomic/molecular rotary dynamical behavior of objects. It also demonstrates an essentially new type of radio signal, where the information in encoded by polarizations of electromagnetic vectors. This can be the basis of a new type of still or video recording, leading to a new form of cinema.
This newly detected phenomenon of quantized optical activity can be considered as the means by which an organism obtains unlimited information on its own metabolism. Such information is read by endogenous laser radiations of chromosomes. The chromosome, in turn, produce the regulative ("semantic") radio emission of the genome biocomputer. Semantic resonances in the biosystem's space are realized at both the wavelength level, and level of frequencies and angles of twist of the polarization modes.
A gene has a holographic memory, (which is typically distributed, associative, and nonlocal), where the holograms "are read" by electromagnetic or acoustic fields. These carry the gene-wave information out beyond the limits of the chromosome structure. At this and subsequent levels, the nonlocality takes on its dualistic material-wave nature, as may also be true for the holographic memory of the cerebral cortex (Pribram, 1991)
Pribram posits a neural holographic process, wherein images are reconstructed when representations in the form of distributed information systems are appropriately engaged. These representations operate as filters or screens. The temporary organization of cortical columns and the arrival of impulses at neuronal junctions converge from at least two sources, forming interference patterns. These patterns are made up of classical postsynaptic potentials, coordinated with awareness. This microstructure of slow potentials is accurately described by the equations that describe the holographic process which is also composed of interference patterns.
From this it follows that in the brain information representing input is distributed over the entire extent of the neural pattern. In the bodymind information is also holographically distributed, each "part" having more or less information about the whole organism. Information is fractally distributed and present in greater or lesser resolution.
A neural holographic or similar process does not mean that input information is distributed willy-nilly over thhe entire depth and surface of the brain. It is confined primarily to those limited regions where reasonably stable junctional designs are initiated by the input participate in the distribution. Holographic memory processing does away with the need for keeping track of where information is stored. The "filter," "sieve," or "screen" of holographic patterns is composed not only of the lattice of membrane macromolecules making up the synapto-dedritic net, but also of a facilitation of all tendencies toward Image formation and the initiation of certain departure patterns of nerve impulses.
At the junctional patterns of neural activity, Image forming capacity is enhanced. Superposition, i.e. spatial interactions among phase relationships of neighboring junctional patterns occurs, with properties akin to those of optical information processing systems -- the properties of holograms.
Chaotic dynamics are part of this image-forming process. There is order even in disorder. There is order, manageable chaos (fractals) and unmanageable chaos. The fractal dimension expresses the complexity of a particular fractal form. Fractal comes from the Latin fractus, which mean broken or fragmented. Fractals delineate a whole new way of thinking about structure and form -- even the forms of dis-ease, which take root organically in the body and psyche.
Like holograms, magnify a fractal again and again and more detail emerges from its infinitely embedded structure. The same self-similar patterns repeat, over and over, no matter what level you care to examine. You look closer and closer and still see the same form. A single image is infinitely reiterated. Thus, a wealth of structure emerges from simplicity. So, too, the dis-ease process can be seen at the physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual levels. Yet, the form remains the same. The key to this process lies in our DNA, in our genes and gene-expression.
Our understanding of the human biocomputer must be based on a new understanding of the higher forms of the DNA memory, and the chromosome apparatus, as the recording, toraging, transducing, and transmitting system for genetic information, to be consider simultaneously at the level of of matter and physical fields. The wave-biocomputer model helps explain the apparatus of protein biosynthesis of living organisms, providing an important interpretation of the initial stages within the hierarchic chain of material and field, sign, holographic, semiotic-semantic and, and figuative encoding and decipherin of chromosome functions. At the gene-sign continuum of any biosystem, DNA forms pre-images of biostructures and the organism as a whole as a registry of dynamical "wave copies" or "matrices", succeeding each other. This contiuum is the measuring, calibrating field for constructing or creating any biosystem, (Gariaev).
Ernest Rossi (1999) has developed a pertinent creativity hypothesis:
Enriching life experiences that evoke psychobiological arousal with positive fascination and focused attention during creative moments of art, music, dance, drama, humor, spirituality, numinosity, awe, joy, expectation, and social rituals can evoke immediate early gene protein cascades to optimize brain growth, mindbody communication, and healing.
[The] psychotherapeutic approach can contribute to psychobiological arousal, enrichment and relaxation; it may be possible to help people find optimal levels of mental stimulation to facilitate actual growth in the hippocampus of their brain to encode new memory, learning and behavior...optimizing psychobiological growth and healing.
ROSSIS DREAM-PROTEIN HYPOTHESIS ON HEALING
Rossi (1999) describes a mind/body communication channel that is pertinent both to bipolar disorder, but also to CRP in that it may describe another way healing manifests from REM. He describes how immediate-Early Genes (also called Primary Response Genes or third messengers) play a central role in the dynamics of waking, sleeping, dreaming, and mind-body healing at the cellular level.
There is evidence that immediate-early genes (IEGs) function as mediators of information transduction between psychological experience, behavioral states, and gene expression. A wide range of behavioral state-related gene expression (from relaxation, hynosis and sleep to high arousal, performance, stress and trauma) culminate in the production of new proteins or homeostasis, physical and psychosocial adaptation.
Behavioral states modulate certain patterns of gene expression. Interaction between the genetic and behavioral levels is a two way street. Genes and behavior are related in cybernetic loops of mind-body communication. How does this relate to manic depression?
A look at the systems related to IEGs, shows that they affect all the systems disrupted in bipolar disorder. They are expressed continually in response to hormone messenger molecules mediating processes of adaptation to extracellular signals and stimuli. Extracellular stimuli come from the outside environment, including temperature, food, sexual cues, psychosocial stress, physical trauma, and toxins. IEGs are fundamental in the sleep-wake cycle, appetite regulation, sexual response, and reactions to stress, trauma, and toxins.
There are persistent alterations in IEG expression in the process of adaptive behavior on all levels from the sexual and emotional to the cognitive. They can transduce relatively brief signals from the environment into enduring changes in the physical structure of the developing nervous system as well as its plasticity in the form of memory and learning throughout life. If external cues can modulate cell function through regulation of gene expression, this could also be true for internal cues.
IEGs are also fundamental in the regulation of REM-on, REM-off neurons, neuronal networks that are associated with REM sleep and dreaming. That makes them significant in CRP as molecules which can modulate mind, emotions, learning and behavior. They influence the rhythm of the natural healing process and circadian and ultradian rhythms of the body, in general. Ultradian rhythms are those shorter than the 24-hour circadian rhythms. Milton Erickson discovered that his therapy sessions usually took from one and a half to two hours to come to natural closure. Later it was discovered that this delineates the natural work cycle that is harmonious with our own internal rhythms. CRP unfolds in a similar time-frame. IEGs modulate this process. This ultradian time frame is related to the activation or deactivation of the expression of specific genes and can occur in a matter of hours or even minutes.
Most arousing environmental stimuli that have been studied can induce immediate-early genes within minutes, their concentrations typically peak within fifteen to twenty minutes and their effects are usually over within an hour or two. These time parameters IEG expression and their ultimate translation into the formation of new proteins correspond to the parameters of a complete work cycle of mind-body communication and healing. The changes in gene transcription and new protein formation initiated in this time frame, however, can lead to lasting changes in the central nervous system by converting short term memory to long lasting learning by he process of long term potentiation. . .the activation or deactivation of the expression of specific genes can occur in a matter of hours or even minutes."
This mechanism assesses the duration and intensity of prior waking and/or the omeostatic or executive mechanisms that bring about sleep. This is likely the mechanism that is disturbed in the manic depressive which results in sleep disorders. Sleep deprivation leads to a wide variety of psychotic and non-psychotic symptoms. This system is also associated with the neuronal network associated with the dynamics of REM sleep. Deprivation of REM and dreaming creates its own phenomenology.
The study of IEGs indicates that sleep and wake, as well as synchronized and desynchronized sleep, are characterized by different genomic expressions, the level of IEGs being high during wake and low during sleep. Such fluctuation of gene expression is not ubiquitous but occurs in certain cell populations in the brain. Thus...IEG induction may reveal the activation of neural networks in different behavioral states. Do the areas in which IEGs oscillate during sleep and wake subserve specific roles in the regulation of these physiological states and a general resetting of behavioral state? Is gene induction a clue to understanding the alternation of sleep and wake, and of REM and non-REM sleep?
In Rossis Dream-Protein Hypothesis;
new experience is encoded by means of protein synthesis in brain tissue...dreaming is a process of psychophysiological growth that involves the synthesis or modification of protein structures in the brain that serve as the organic basis for new developments in the personality...new proteins are synthesized in some brain structures associated with REM dream sleep.
Rossi generalizes the dream-protein hypothesis,
to include all states of creativity associated with the peak periods of arousal and insight generation in psychobiologically oriented psychotherapy.
Enriched internal and external environments leads to the growth and development of new cells. IEG cascades lead to the formation of new proteins and neurons along with increased synapses and dendrites that encode memory and learning. On the other hand, excessive trauma and psychosocial stress can lead to suppression of growth processes in the brain. When psychotherapy contributes to arousal, enrichment, and relaxation it facilitates actual growth in the brain to encode new memory, learning and behavior, optimizing growth and healing.
Communication within the neuronal networks of the brain is modulated by changes in the strengths of synaptic connections...meaning is to be found in the complex dynamic field of messenger molecules that continually bath and contextualize the information of the neuronal networks in ever changing patterns. Most of the sexual and stress hormones...have state dependent effects on our mental and emotional states as well as memory and learning, a constantly changing dynamical field of meaning. (Rossi).
Now getting back to the research of the Gariaev group, we can summarize the essence of the human biocomputer.
"Thus, nonlocality can be postulated to be the key factor explaining the astonishing evolutionary achievement of multicellular biosystems. This factor says that bioinformatic events, can be instantaneously coordinated, talking place "here and there simultaneously", and that in such situations the concept of "cause and effect" loses any sense. This is of a great importance! The intercellular diffusion of signal substances and of the nervous process is far too inertial for this purpose. Even if it is conceded that intercellular transmissions take place electro-magnetically at light speeds, this would still be insufficient to explain how highly evolved, highly complex biosystems work in real time."
Gariaev asserts that quantum nonlocality and holography is indispensable to a proper explanation of such real time working.
"[T]he genes can act as quantum objects, and that, it is the phenomenon of quantum non-locality/teleportation, that ensures the organism's super cohency, information super redundancy, super knowledge, cohesion, and, as a totality or whole, the organism's integrity (viability)."
This new understanding of biocomputers, constitutes a further step in a development of computer technology in general. And understanding that brings about a total change of the constituent basis of that technology to the figurative semantic (nonlocal) wave computer or biocompute, based on DNA memory, and the chromosome apparatus.
Quantum Holography says that DNA satisfies the principle of computer construction, since it carries a copy of itself, its own blueprint, while the mechanism engineering the DNA replication is the biophotonic electromagnetic field, while the "letters" of the genetic texts A, G, C, U are held invariant. The existence of the genetic text constitutes the classical signal process of quantum teleportation, and facilitates the quantum mechanical signal processes of both the copying of the DNA as its own blueprint, and of the construction of the organism in a massively parallel way by means of quantum teleportation.
Quantum Holography defines an admitter/absorber quantum vacuum model of quantum mechanics in terms of annihilation/creation operators [Schempp, 1993]. This implies that DNA does indeed behave like a single quantum, which induces a "hole" temporarily in the vacuum by its removal.
MECHANISMS: Quantum Mechanisms and Complex Dynamics
A quick review of the Holographic Concept refreshes us on the basics of biophysics:
Particles found in biological processes include photons, electrons, protons, elementary ions, inorganic radicals, organic radicals, molecules, and molecular aggregates. Photons act upon electrons by raising their energy state. This process is called excitation. Excited electrons can drop back to more stable energy levels and emit photons. Electron excitation can lead to the formation of an electronic bond between molecules. This is the traditional bond of classical chemistry. The breaking of such bonds can, by reverse process, lead to the excitation of electrons.
In living systems the excitation of electrons by photons and the subsequent conversion of that excitation into the bond energy is called photosynthesis and is the basic builder of biological structures. The reversal of this process is called bioluminescence. This phenomenon is the transfer of energy from a bond to an excited electron, resulting in the emission of a photon. It has been suggested by Szent-Gyorgyi (1957: 8) that the energetics of living creatures can be understood in terms of photosynthesis and its reversal, bioluminescence.All cellular processes are driven by energy derived from the breaking of chemical bonds and the excitation of electrons. Depending upon the particular environment and circumstances, the excitation of the electron can be converted in one of three ways:(1) conversion into heat and dissipation
(2) translation of molecules or ions through the cell, or
(3) transformation of the molecules' shapes which profoundly influences their biological reactivity.
The formation of a certain type of chemical bond known as the resonance bond (which is most easily seen in the case of the Benzene molecule) leads to a peculiar situation in which certain electrons are freed from a local or particular location in the molecule. These are then free to travel around the entire molecule. This means that the electrons occupy an energy shell of the whole molecule as opposed to any particular atom in the molecule. The existence of molecular systems with mobile electrons has been found to be of profound significance in the phenomena of life.
Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which compose 99 percent of all living systems, are among the atoms in the periodic table which form the multiple bonds most easily leading to mobile electrons. Sulphur and phosphorus, which are extremely important for life processes, also form such multiple bonds quite easily.
All the essential biochemical substances, which perform the fundamental functions of living matter, are composed completely or partially of such mobile electrons. Molecules which contain these electrons are known as conjugated systems (Pullman and Pullman, 1963, chapter18). The essential fluidity of life may correspond with the fluidity of the electronic cloud in conjugated molecules. Such systems may best be considered as both the cradle and the main backbone of life.
Conjugate bonded molecules may interact in a variety of ways. Among these types of interaction can be found the interpenetration of electron orbitals which permits an electromagnetic coupling. This coupling can permit activated electron energy to pass from one molecule to another in the same way a radio can transmit a message to a radio receiver. There is also the possibility of the transfer of an entire electron which is known as charge transfer.
It is possible for a molecular complex to contain several radicals at different positions on the main molecule, each of which are conjugated. If these are in close enough proximity, or can be brought into proximity by changes in the structural configuration of the molecule, a charge can pass between these two groups. This is the case of the transfer of electron charges on or around a single molecular complex. It has been suggested by Szent-Gyorgyi (1968) that the sugars and phosphates that make up the side of the alpha helix of DNA can permit the passage of electrons, functioning as a conductor. The biological conduction systems operate primarily on an amorphous semiconductor mode as opposed to resembling metallic conductors (such as the new devices being developed for computer memories). These do not have sharply defined energy bands in which electrons may flow, as opposed to other bands in which they are bound rigidly. There is a spread or bell-curve in which the points or tails are bound more closely to a particular molecule. The hump indicates a conducting band that permits electrons to flow across the surface of a particular molecule or between molecules (McGinness, 1972).
This means, in essence, that protein molecules which are composed of amino acid sequences, may act as organic circuits. The amino acids each have a donor group and an acceptor group on opposing ends. This means that a string or series of amino acids could pass a charge along as if it were being passed along a series of spines sticking up from the main body of the molecule.
Different pathways could be defined across the surface of a protein molecule by the amino acid radicals projecting out from the surface of the protein. The shape of the protein molecules is a function of the charges and the conjugate systems on the radicals that make up the protein. When a protein is manufactured and peels off the ribosome, it immediately assumes a three-dimensional spatial pattern that is directly related to the charges on its surface and the ways in which they interact.
The biological activity or specificity of action of various molecules is intimately related to their structure or their exact three-dimensional spatial configuration. Electronic energy and electrons can move through a protein molecule between its different parts and can pass among different molecules. We now come to understand a possible mechanism for biological regulation involving flows of electrons and transfer of electronic energy between molecules. These can change their shape and thereby change their specific action and activity. The fusion of electron clouds can exist within a conjugated system and among conjugated systems. This can account for cohesion or the adherence of such molecules to each other. Such fusion is a very important determinate of the structure of larger aggregates of molecules and portions of living cells, such as membranes.
Biohologram Field Theory
A liquid crystal in a cell through its own structure becomes a proto-organ for mechanical and electrical activity, and when associated in specialized cells in higher animals gives rise to true organs such as muscles and nerves. The oriented molecules in liquid crystals furnish an ideal medium for catalytic action, particularly of the complex type needed to account for growth and reproduction. A liquid crystal has the possibility of its own structure through singular lines, rods and cones, etc. Such structures belong to the liquid crystal as a unit and not to its molecules which may be replaced by others without destroying them, and they persist in spite of the complete fluidity of the substance (Needham, 1936).
Bernal's statement (1933) would seen to support Burr and Northrop's macro-atomic theory(1935), which postulates that there are two aspects to reality, the field and the particle. They associate the field with what they term the macroscopic aspect and the electron with the particle. They associate the field with what they term the macroscopic aspect and the electron with the particle. The particle is associated with movement. The structure of biological material seems to be associated with the field aspect. The electric field causes polarization of the macromolecules in the solution due to the fact that molecules possess a dipole moment, and changes the position of protons in the molecule. Such action can affect the relative stability of different possible configurations of the macromolecules. The field affects the degree of
structure present in the solution.
A constant magnetic field can, in principle, affect the various processes in biological objects. Three possible mechanisms for this biomagnetic affect are
(1) the orientation of diamagnetic or paramagnetic molecules by the magnetic field
(2) distortions of the angles in the molecules and
(3) orientation of the spins of molecules in a magnetic field (Fowler and Bernal, 1933;Freedericks and Zolina, 1933; Van Iterson, 1933; Osborne, Ambrose and Stuart, 1970).
Presman (1970) has postulated that such electromagnetic fields normally serve as conveyors of information, from the environment to the organism, within the organism, and among organisms. He suggests that organisms employ these fields in conjunction with the well known sensory, nervous, and endocrine systems, in effecting coordination and integration.
Muses (1970) has proposed the possibility of unit impulse functions evolving from the Gaussian. His work traces the relation of that mathematical concept to quantum biological indeterminacy in terms of a process of the modulation of random fluctuations by target-seeking perturbations which points the way to the understanding and computing of the parameters of volitional experience in quantum biological terms. He maintains that we are dealing with Gaussian wave packets, put to use in terms of a close-range reaction in turn resulting in the resonant microbiological specificity (arising from the relatively large number of specific molecular parameters) necessary to the essential life and evolutional processes of chromosome synapses, replication, and mutagenesis.
Muses holds that inherently indeterminate processes may be biologically used in achieving determinate ones such as our repeatable and commonly accepted volitional experiences of effort and direction. The range of quantum indeterminate fluctuation of biological efficacy is in the far ultraviolet, and it is in this spectral region that we should expect to look for any modulation effects on Gaussian wave packets by volitional energies manifesting as ultramicrobiological field perturbations.
Biologically, there is a threshold of non-randomicity below which peaks tend to emerge that are sharp enough to possess biodirectiveness in an enzyme-guiding sense. Random biological quantum energies which are physiologically unassigned are the clue to psychosomatic directing, which can be beneficial or deleterious to the organism. Muses (1970) describes the mechanism of this effect as a microbiolaser type process.
Heisenberg explored the possible relevance of the quantum indeterminacy of elementary particles for biological systems, especially human systems (discussed in Koestler, 1972). He stated that there are two places in the human system where the quantum indeterminacy of a single particle can have a profound influence. The first important effect is that of mutation in the genetic code. The second important influence is the alteration of the behavior of neurons during human thought processes.
Tien (1969) has conceptualized mind as mass in relative motion and brain as energy at relative electrical charges in motion, like electrons bombarding a television screen, and personality is seen as a time series of scintillating frames of consciousness. Personality becomes a reverbating input-output pattern of self-creation, seeking information or patterns of energy from the environment as well as from its own memories. The stability of any given personality of its identity, which is maintained by feedback upon the principle of most similarity.
The personality never recreates itself, but creates only a close approximation which is accepted due to the principle of constancy as being the same. The phenomena of unique individuality and personal continuity depend on memory, of which consciousness is the most recent and, thereby, the most subject to erasure and loosening. Personality transformation becomes energy pattern modification of not only scintillating consciousness but also of recent circulating memories and older stored memories of childhood.
According to the holographic model of reality, all the objects we can observe are three-dimensional images formed of standing and moving waves by electromagnetic and nuclear processes. All the objects of our world are three-dimensional images formed electro-magnetically, i.e., holograms.
This concept and the models of human information processing based on the hologram, throw interesting light on the philosophical tradition which holds that the world of objects is an illusion. With the triumph of relativity and quantum physics, the interpenetration of the philosophical and the scientific is possible.
LeShan (1969) has observed, in discussing some individuals who purportedly experience psycho-energetic phenomena, that their view of the universe as a great thought of which they are a part is quite similar to many physicists' view that they see reality only in their own mental image.
We propose that the "reality hologram" which appears as a stable world of material objects is the elementary particle which has a long-term existence and fairly simple rules of interaction. We also propose the existence of a "biohologram" which appears as mobile and evolving, through the DNA molecule. This "biohologram" projects a dynamic three-dimensional image that serves as a guiding matrix for the manipulation and organization of the "reality hologram." (R.Miller, Webb, Dickson, 1973).
Thus we have mobile self-organizing holograms moving through a relatively static simpler hologram. The possibility exists that such "bioholograms" could achieve sufficient coherence to continue existence as a pattern of radiant energy apart from a material substate. We feel that such an occurrence could form the scientific basis of such psychoenergetic phenomena as psycho-kinesis, clairvoyance, telepathy, and precognition.